Ngo Thi Thanh (translated)
The two terms “The photogenic” (Eat the theory) and “The simulacrum” (The theory so) like two milestones in the evolution of the concept of reality in general and cinema in particular documentary. If the term “The photogenic” born in the ’20s of the 20th century, and it is accompanied by the debate between schools of realism (realism) and formalism (formalism) related to relationship between reality and cinema, the term “The simulacrum” is an important concept of postmodernism has solved the persistent conflict between the two schools. Real time from being something external to explore becoming a form of discourse, a conventional style, or say things that are just as Baudrillard. This also led to a change in the use of materials and techniques in the documentary. And excerpts translated “Making documentaries: From Theory to Eating the World as theory” from the book “Film-The key concepts” of Nitzan Ben-Shaul will somewhat clarify that change. The original can be found at the library film and read.
For documentary film modernist, it is fundamental belief in the power of art reproduction and shooting ability to reveal aspects of reality hidden montages. This exists in both the filmmakers and the general belief that those who use it for ideological purposes, and even propaganda. Notwithstanding this purpose we control the cinematography and editing are always included a subjective operation and purpose based on the selection and deployment story.
From this awareness, Vertov was put into his film production process in its relationship with the images obtained and develop their activities. In the works of Man with a Movie Camera (1929), Vertov regularly expose myself, camera, cameraman and montage work when they gather up the scene and, at the same time emphasizing direct relationship between recording and filming activities, the development and construction activities. In a typical case of the film, a montage of him and his wife Svilova is shown working at the table as she filmed scenes trying to transplant a kids smiling with a woman old scene, the the transition back and forth from process to results graft transplantation. Each result has rhythms and different themes in order to emphasize that the age difference, while others have focused on the similarity of smiles. This is not only because of the transition relation, but also from our relationship with the footage shown Svilova are in the process of creating this relationship, such as Svilova shown in the table is set up a girl still frame of the motion and open smile filled her happy.
Contrary to the clear perception and trend of Vertov’s reflexive style arrangement of Robert Flaherty expressed in poetic documentary Nanook of the North. In the film, Flaherty uses the viewer’s faith in the document images to describe image outdated, bizarre and inclusion of Eskimo life. Through character Nanook Eskimo tribal leader, he does this by reproducing the Eskimos wear and hunting in the past, a job that Nanook not know and have to learn and perform their dose. The arrangement also documentary images are exploited for purely propaganda purposes in many films such as state subsidies in the Nazi film The Eternal Jew (1940), where the Jewish equivalent dirt and rodents can be a disgusting way by placing the document image is not good for the Jews next to images of gnawing rats.
Perceptions of subjective aspects covered in the documentary filming and editing operations still believe in the power of truth reveals something that has led to two major filmmaking style and conflicting development throughout 60s. In the U.S., Robert Drew and the other directors proposed Direct Cinema movement (direct cinema) described the documentary as a kind of “eavesdropping” on reality recorded. They use a handheld camera to capture the event, conveying a vivid sense and no such intervention in bringing about the Democratic Party Convention in 1960 with many cameras (Primary, 1960).
In contrast, the French anthropologist Jean Rouch proponent of what he calls cinéma Verite movement (true cinema – ND) (a term borrowed from newsreel series Kino-Pravda / Truth of Vertov Film), in which the filmmaker to his subjectivity and his presence throughout the film, through the manifestation of the process of film making by continually questioning assumptions is leading activities reported events . This can be seen in the film Chronicle of a Summer (1961) Rouch where, in the end, the people interviewed in the film as the director conducting the debate about the true contents and ordering operations the film has been shown. This trend has developed into genre material in the first person narrative as a 6 part film Diary of David Perlov (1973-83), where ambitious objective truth revealed discarded to begin pros first type includes the material directly surrounding the director, the camera is looking through his hand. In addition to the commentary, the director depicts a highly subjective view and rich poetic about their world.
The advent of postmodern awareness and common notions about the character because (simulacrum) has blurred the distinction between reality and fiction. The postmodern denial of the theory of realism and formalism of documentary realism that exists above human perception and can be revealed (the realist means) or to be separated from (the formalism). The postmodern filmmakers start from the point that while the fictional material and cultural categories or types of discourse with different styles, the distinction is not derived from their approach an elusive reality that existed before recorded. Therefore, the post-modern movies inadvertently mixing and seamless documentation and fiction. The lies of-style and elaborate documentation of fictional truth becomes no boundaries. For example, in the movie How I Learned to Overcome My Fear and Love Arik Sharon (1997), filmmaker Avi Mugrabi mix of materials on the election campaign of Ariel Sharon to the author of the material gradation of director of one of the fans of Sharon and the deterioration of his marriage, and ending with his wife he decided to leave because of political alliances have changed.
The film Zelig (1983) Woody Allen made an interesting illustration of overshadowing the relationship between reality and fiction. The film is presented in many different styles such material used in addition to the comments section to be built across the dance capital of the black and white archive footage is grainy scratch and “bring old look” be incorporated into the interview with mystery film “brings a modern look.” Through this style movie tells the story of Zelig, a man and change the perception of his personality in any period, place or circumstance. Moreover, Zelig seamlessly blended into the raw photos and video clips from well-known, such as when the viewer sees him sitting between Nazi leaders close to Hitler. Illustrating the postmodern approach to the film, Zelig, erase a humorous way – in both style and content – the distinction between the categories of documentary and fiction, drama and reality, the period the different history and different characteristics.
Home postmodernism leads to so-called mocumentaries (parody material), such Blair Witch Project (1999). The film opens with the notes “In October 1994, three student filmmakers disappeared in the woods in Burkittsville, Maryland, while away filming a documentary. A year later their footage was found. ” The movie uses hand-held camera creates a subtle blend between fact and fiction style gimmicks material calculated to produce the film’s fictional mystery. Actions ordering reality most recently can be found in the category “Reality TV” [Reality TV] common (eg Big Brother) where ordinary people are under the observation of the camcorder to their private life while competing to win any awards.
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